Astrophysics is a branch of astronomy that focuses on the inherent nature of celestial objects but often excludes the mechanics of their motions. It covers topics like studies of stellar spectra, stellar evolution and cosmology, among other topics.
The luminosity, a measure of power output, of a star can be derived from the mass, distance and apparent magnitude and vice versa. Other properties can also be inferred from the luminosity.
The properties of a black hole are determined primarily by its mass and type.
Due to the expansion of the universe caused by the Big Bang, the properties of the universe have changed over time.
Asteroid impacts are dependent on many factors that can affect the properties of the resulting crater and many other effects.